The bureaucracy does not generally have the best of motives in moulding the views of the ministers. The result is that children are taught whatever suits the government. However, it is possible to attain a fair degree of rationality. The whole ideal according to that conception is static. Also in another sphere, physiology and bio-chemistry are making inroads on psychology which threaten philosophy in a vital spot.
Restraints on free thought in England as well as in Russia Thought is not free if a man, by holding or not holding certain opinions, renders himself liable to legal penalties.
Unfortunately the kind of existence desired by that ideal bores a modern man. Psychology will thus become a hand-maid to the lust for power.
Often we hold beliefs which are flattering to ourselves. It is obvious that people who believe this will act quite differently from those who take the orthodox or economic view.
Russell narrates a few instances to illustrate his view that even in modern England free-thinking persons suffer from certain disadvantages.
The need for a scientific outlook The opposition between Russia and the western countries is fundamentally economic, but it may be expected to extend over the whole sphere of belief. People would cease to desire war if they had opportunities for taking part in some dangerous and exciting hobbies.
More leisure and more emphasis on routine amusements If wars are eliminated, and production is organised scientifically, it is likely that four hours work a day will suffice to keep everybody in comfort.
If a political party has a policy which will do much harm on the way to some ultimate good, the call for scepticism is very great. There is a great deal of conflict between these two groups of nations, each having its own political creed. There is nothing wrong in that.
However, the remedies suggested by him can hardly counter this threat. Some of the powers of a would-be central authority First and foremost, a central authority may be able to decide questions of peace and war.
The psycho-analyst, on the contrary, always seeks psychological causes and tries to operate upon them.
Secondly, they encourage a cheap press which flourishes by appealing to the baser passions of human beings. University professors, journalists, politicians, legal experts—all are prone to hold beliefs which are supported not by objective evidence but by their own wishes and desires.
No man can make a full use of his abilities until he has realised his own smallness. Watson, the great Behaviourist. Critical comments The evils of machinery and industrialism have been pointed out by many thinkers even though the benefits conferred by the machine have fully been recognized.
Since politicians are divided into rival groups, they aim at similarly dividing the nation. Where certainty is not possible a rational man will attach the greatest importance to the most probable opinion, while keeping other opinions in his mind as alternatives which subsequent evidence may show to be preferable.
This is due, of course, to the immense practical utility of science. But in recent times science has been compelled by its own problems to take an interest in philosophy. There is no doubt that psychology has made enormous progress and that the holders of power can now greatly mould public opinion in accordance with their own wishes.
A search for happiness based upon untrue beliefs is neither very noble nor very glorious. He does not understand that other ages and other countries have different moral standards to which they have as much right as the Puritan has to his.
The Puritan, like every fanatic, fails to realise that drastic efforts to suppress any real evil will produce other evils which are even greater.
If the persons holding political and governmental power so desire they can avert a possible creed war in the future. Each of these two classes has a special kind of skill. Dangerous and exciting pursuits are already available in plenty to people who have a taste for them. But even America suffers from this curb upon the freedom of thought.
Such a measure would not only be reactionary but impracticable. It should be possible to educate people in such a way as to increase their powers of weighing evidence and forming rational judgments, instead of being taught patriotism and class bias.
But as the forces tending to war are psychological, it is possible to control them. He definitely prefers an education where different opinions are weighed, judged freely without any fear of law, losing livelihood and repression.
That conception of excellence is being gradually displaced by an outlook resulting from the domination of the machine over the imagination.
A large part of human nature is a matter of upbringing, training, and nurture, chiefly in the early years of human life.
The need of observing two simple principles All social problems can be solved by adopting two simple principles."'These propositions may seem mild, yet, if accepted, they would absolutely revolutionise human life.' With these words Bertrand Russell introduces what is indeed a revolutionary book.
Taking as his starting point the irrationality of the world, he offers by contrast something 'wildly paradoxical and subversive' - a belief that reason should determine 4/5(6).
Sep 18, · An Introduction to Russell’s Sceptical Essays The book called Sceptical Essays contains as many as seventeen essays. While six of the essays have been discussed exhaustively in the present work, the. EMBED (for fresh-air-purifiers.com hosted blogs and fresh-air-purifiers.com item tags).
Sceptical Essays / Edition 2 'These propositions may seem mild, yet, if accepted, they would absolutely revolutionize human life.' With these words Bertrand Russell introduces what is indeed a revolutionary book.
Taking as his starting-point the irrationality of the world, he offers by contrast something 'wildly paradoxical and subversive' - a Price: $ 84 quotes from Sceptical Essays: ‘[T]he infliction of cruelty with a good conscience is a delight to moralists.
That is why they invented Hell.’. Apr 01, · Sceptical Essays by Bertrand Russell,available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide/5().Download